When taken orally Ciprofloxacin is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Maximum plasma concentration is reached after 6 hours after oral administration and dose-dependent. Compared to immediate release ciprofloxacin substance in a dose of 250 mg taken twice daily, tsiprinol received once a day, above; wherein the parameters area under the curve “concentration-time» sustanon equivalent for one day.
Ciprofloxacin binds to plasma proteins by 20-40%.
The volume of distribution after oral administration ciprofloxacin ranges from 1.74 to 5 L / kg in an equilibrium state, which indicates that the penetration of ciprofloxacin active tissue.
High drug concentrations are observed in bile, lung, kidney, liver, gall bladder, uterus, semen, prostate tissue, tonsils, endometrium, fallopian tubes and ovaries. The concentration of drug in these tissues than in the serum. Ciprofloxacin is also well into the bone, ocular fluid, bronchial secretions, saliva, skin, muscles, pleura, peritoneum, lymph. The cerebrospinal fluid penetrates in a small amount where its concentration in the non-inflamed meninges is 6-10% of that in the serum and in inflamed – 14-37% (which is greater than the minimum inhibitory concentration for most enterobacteria).
Ciprofloxacin crosses the placenta.
is metabolized in the liver (15-30%) with sustanon the formation of inactive metabolites (dietilpiprofloksatsin, sulfotsiprofloksatsin, oksotsiprofloksatsin, formiltsiprofloksatsin).
Ciprofloxacin is excreted mainly by the kidneys: 50% of non-metabolized drug and active metabolites, as well as 11-12% of inactive metabolites. Up to 8% of metabolites are excreted through the intestines.
- Infectious-inflammatory diseases caused by microorganisms sensitive to ciprofloxacin:
- respiratory tract: pneumonia (except pneumococcal pneumonia), acute bronchitis, exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis (if the agent is a Gram-negative bacteria, especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa);
- ear, nose and throat: acute otitis media, sinusitis, mastoiditis;
- kidney and urinary tract sustanon infections: uncomplicated and complicated infections of the lower and upper parts of the urinary tract (urethritis, cystitis, pyelonephritis);
- pelvic and genital organs (epididymitis, prostatitis, salpingitis, endometritis, oophoritis, tubular abscess and pelvioperitonit, gonorrhea, chancroid, chlamydia);
- abdominal organs: intraperitoneal abscess, cholecystitis, cholangitis (in combination with metronidazole or clindamycin), infectious diarrhea: salmonellosis, kamtgalobakterioz, yersiniosis, shigellosis, cholera, typhoid fever, diarrhea travelers bacteriocarrier Salmonella typhi.
- Skin and soft tissue: infected ulcers, infected wounds, abscesses, cellulitis, an infection of the outer ear canal, infected burns;
- musculoskeletal system: osteomyelitis, septic arthritis;
- Infections in patients with reduced immunity (immunosuppressive therapy on the background or in neutropenic patients).
- Prevention and treatment of inhalational anthrax.
- Hypersensitivity to ciprofloxacin or other quinolones or to any other component of the drug.
- Pregnancy and lactation.
- Children and teens under 18 years of age;
- Simultaneous treatment with tizanidine (risk of significant decrease in blood pressure (BP), somnolence).
- Pseudomembranous colitis;
- Severe renal sustanon hepatic impairment;
- Diseases of the central nervous system (epilepsy, lowered seizure threshold, convulsions in the history of cerebrovascular disease, mental illness).